Baseline Studies for Impact Evaluation

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The Standard Logical Framework Matrix and how it relates to M&E

The primary purpose of M&E is to measure the degree to which an operation design is implemented as planned and how successfully it achieves its intended results. The operation design describes how inputs and activities will result in outputs delivered by WFP and its partners, and how the operation designers believe these outputs will, in turn, result in desired outcomes and impacts.
The relationship between each of these levels is described in a logical framework hierarchy for the operation and represents a hypothesis concerning how the operation, starting with the initial resources or inputs that are available, will bring about the desired results. When a results-based approach to design is used, the desired outcomes or impacts are identified first, then the outputs needed to achieve those outcomes, and then the inputs and activities needed to deliver those outputs. The logical framework approach produces a matrix (see following page), which combines the concepts of results-based management (RBM), results-based operation design and M&E.

The Main Contents of the Logical Framework Matrix

Each of the four columns in the Logical Framework is described in the following paragraphs. The first and fourth columns articulate operation design and assumptions, while the second and third columns outline the M&E performance measurement indicators and means in order to test whether or not the hypothesis articulated in the operation design holds true.

Column 1: This column outlines the design or internal logic of the operation. It incorporates a hierarchy of what the operation will do (inputs, activities and outputs) and what it will seek to achieve (purpose and goal).

Column 2: This column outlines how the design will be monitored and evaluated by providing the indicators used to measure whether or not various elements of the operation design have occurred as planned.

Column 3: This column specifies the source(s) of information or the means of verification for assessing the indicators.

Column 4: This column outlines the external assumptions and risks related to each level of the internal design logic that is necessary for the next level up to occur.

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